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What Burma Must Do

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Aung San Suu Kyi

October 2014
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Australia Campaign for Burma
Campaign for Burma
Austrian Burma Center
Actions Birmanie
Canadian Friends of Burma
Burma Center Prague
People in Need
Danish Burma Committee
Campaign for Democracy in Burma (Finland)
Info Birmanie
Burma Aktion
Burma Initiative Germany
Burma Bureau Germany
Democracy for Burma
Burma Action Ireland
Birmania Campaign
Birmania Campaign
Burma Info
Burma Centrum Netherlands
New Zealand Council of Trade Unions
Norwegian Burma Committee
Initiatives for International Dialogue
Polish Burma Solidarity
Associação de Defesa dos Direitos Humanos
FBC-SA
Birmania por la Paz
Swedish Burma Committee
Association Suisse-Birmanie
Strategy and Build
All Burma Federation of Student Unions (Foreign Affairs Committee)
Burma Partnership
Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma
Burmese community organisation
United States Campaign for Burma
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)
National Council of the Union of Burma
Altsean
Amnesty International
Amnesty International Crimes against Humanity in Eastern Burma report
Article 19
Assistance Association for Political Prisoners - Burma
EarthRights International
Free Burma’s Political Prisoners Now
Human Rights Treaties ratified by Burma
Human Rights Watch - Burma page
International Labour Organisation: Report on Forced Labour in Burma
Landmine Monitor Report: Burma 2008
Reporters without Borders
Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)
Christian Solidarity Worldwide

REPORTS

UNSC Report No. 1- 4 Oct 2007
Update Report 19 September 2007_Myanmar (UNSC Report)
Update Report 22 Nov 2006_Myanmar
UN Report- Myanmar Opium Survey - Oct 2004
UNSC Report No. 1 - 10 September 2008
UNSC Report No. 4- 14 May 2008
Security Council-Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar
Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar
Thayer The Myammar/Burma Issue: After Sanctions
■ SUPPLY AND COMMAND
■ Gas & Oil Connections - Myanmar lost to China- India's encirclement complete
AI Report June 2008
AI Report November 2007 AI Report December 2007
AI Report June 2005
AI Report on Myanmar briefing after Nargis
EIU Country Report :March 2009
EIU Annual Report : 2007
EU Conclusion on Myanmar - Oct 2007
Amnesty International- Sep 2007
■ A History of the Burma Socialist Party by Kyaw Zaw Win

NUCLEAR

■ Recognition of Burma's Proliferation
■ Plagiarism in the Burma Nuclear SCOOP
■ Nuclear Proliferation and Burma the Hidden Connection
■ Burma's Secret Agreement With North Korea
■ BURMA-A-Threat-to-International-Security-and-Peace
■ Additional-Burmese-Missile-Sites-Identified
■ WMD Nexus Between North Korea and Burma
■ Where's the State Dept Nuclear Report on Burma
■ BURMA DIGEST Interview on Burma Nuclear
■ Analysis of Burma's Nuclear Program 1
■ Analysis of Burma's Nuclear Program 2
■ Russia Burma Nuclear Intelligence Report-1
■ Russia Burma Nuclear Intelligence Report-2
■ Arm-Including Nuke Dealing With N-Korea
■ Burma's China Connection and the India Ocean Region By Andrew Selth
■ NEITHER WAR NOR PEACE The Future of cease-fire Agreements in Burma
■ A Historical Overview of Political Transition in Myanmar Since 1988
■ Sino-Myanmar Economic Relations Since 1988
■ The Road to Naypyidaw- Making Sense of the Myanmar Government's Decision to Move its Capital
■ Southern Thai Politics - A Preliminary Overview

UN WORLD BODIES

Vale Earth Fair
Conservative Party Human Rights Commission
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
US State Department report on Burma
US State Department report on human rights in Burma
Witness CIA World Factbook - Burma
News Statesman special issue on Burma (Jun 08)
Global Health Facts
HIV Information for Myanmar (HIM)
Mae Tao Clinic (Dr Cynthia’s clinic)
Three Diseases Fund

ART

Art-Exiled Burmese Hip Hop
Identity and Design

Library

Online Burma Library

Journalism

Development Gateway
Human Security Gateway
Inside Burma - Land of Fear
Inside Burma - Land of Fear

Aung San Suu Kyi Pages

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi pages
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi pages
Free Aung San Suu Kyi

PHOTOGRAPHY

■ Images of Suspected Uranium Mine and Refinery in Burma
Exile Images: Photography
Grace under Pressure
Kalama Sutta
Karen guerillas

MOVIES

Shwe Dream
Burma VJ
Inside Burma - Land of Fear
Inside Burma - Land of Fear
Moving to Mars
Kalama Sutta
The Hub, by Witness.

MONKS

English
Burmese

BDC SITES

Bdcburma
Bdcburma Burmese
Music
Italian
Swedish
Youtube
French
German
Bdc wordpress
Russia
Norwegian
Spanish
Hindi/ India
Portuguese
Italian
Dutch
Swedish
Japanese
News and Entertainment Portal
Flickr
Radio

BLOGS SITES

Nguyinpyin
Rebound88
Redo8888
Dr Lunswe
Lanka-msma
Damaahdama
Myo Chit myanmar
Maynyane
Flying Peacock
Maykha
Aeinstein
Moethaukkye
Binamo
Absdf8888
Blc Burma
DPNS
Ko Moe Thee
drlunswe
khinmamamyo
ko-htike
niknayman
soneseayar
maungdine
mmedwatch
maynyane
nineninesanay
linletkyalsin
shwebothar
peacefulwalkingtogether
publicenemies
weunite-weblog
freedomuprising
pu-htu-zin
internationalcampaignforfreedom Blog Generation Wave

ETNIC SITES

Chin Youth
Feraya,s new website-taigress
Free Burma Rangers
Hurform- HRF of Monland
Karen Human Rights Group
KNL Japan
KNU
Mae Sod Border action
Phan Foundation
Chin Human Rights Organization
Drum Publications
Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
Karen National Union (KNU)
Karen Women’s Organisation (KWO)
Karenni Homeland
Karenni Students Union (KSU)
Kawthoolei
Kuki Forum (KIF)
Rohingyas, the Forgotten People Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN)
The Chin Forum
The Rohingya Minority

WOMEN

Burmese Women’s Union
Kachin Women’s Association Thailand
Karen Women’s Organisation (KWO)
Karenni National Women’s Organization
Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN)
WEAVE - Women’s Education for Advancement and Empowerment
Women’s League of Burma
Women’s League of Chinland

NGOS

Burma Diaspora
Help without Frontiers
http://www.helfenohnegrenzen.de/
Latest IDP figure for Burma - Internal Displacement Monitoring Group
WEAVE - Women’s Education for Advancement and Empowerment
All Burma Federation of Student Unions (Foreign Affairs Committee)
All Burma Students’ Democratic Front
Burma Education Partnership (BEP)
Human Rights Education Institute of Burma
Prospect Burma
Federation of Trade Unions - Burma
Global Unions: Companies linked to Burma
Burma Border Projects (BBP)
Burma Children Medical Fund (BCMF)
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
Burma Diaspora

SPDC SITES

New Light of Myanmar
The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) website

ENVIRONMENTAL

Karen Rivers Watch
Living River Siam
Project Maje
Salween watch
Association for Sustainable and Responsible Investment in Asia
Burma Economic Watch
Business and Human Rights Resource Centre
Global Unions: Companies linked to Burma
Salween watch
SEEcompanies.com
Shwe Gas Movement
AIDS, TB, Malaria and Bird Flu spread unchecked in Burma
Back Pack Health Worker Team

NLD SITES

National League for Democracy (NLD) Liberated area UK Branch
NLD Japan
The National League For Democracy

Media SITES

BBC Burmese
Burmadaily
Burmanet
Democratic Voice of Burma
mizzima news
NEW ERA JOURNAL-KHITPYAING
Special Burma News
Shan Herald Agency
Kwekalu Karen News
Kuki Forum
Karen Information Center(KIC)
Burmese Events in UK
Burma Rivers Network
Mizzima Burmese
Burma Digest
Hit Tai
Khitpyaing
Burma Today
Burma daily
Burmalibrary
Yoma3
Kachin News
Kachin Post
Kaowao Newsgroup
Karen Human Rights Group

http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2013/06/24/10-steps-myanmar-must-take/

02:29 PM ET

10 steps Myanmar must take

By Suzanne DiMaggio and Priscilla Clapp

Editor’s note: Suzanne DiMaggio is vice president of global policy programs at theAsia Society. Priscilla Clapp is a retired minister counselor in the U.S. Foreign Service and former Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy in Burma. The views expressed are their own.

The still nascent transition in Myanmar has emerged as one of the most promising efforts at democratization in the world today. After more than half a century of brutal, debilitating military rule, the country is in the process of a calculated top-down course reversal, which has unleashed a bottom-up awakening of political, economic, and civil society activity.

Notwithstanding the progress to date, from now until the next general election in 2015 the country’s reform leaders – including former general turned President Thein Sein, parliamentarian and democracy icon Aung San Suu Kyi, and speaker of parliament’s lower house Thura Shwe Mann – will face a range of challenges that will test their capacity and threaten the durability of the transition. Among the most urgent priorities are resolving ethnic and sectarian conflicts within Myanmar’s diverse society, creating jobs for the vast majority of the population who live in poverty, continuing to transform the role of the military, tackling corruption, and establishing the rule of law.
We recently returned to Myanmar for meetings and consultations with parliamentarians, senior government officials, President Thein Sein’s advisors, business and civil society leaders, activists, and journalists. From these discussions, we identified ten key challenges that Myanmar’s leaders must confront to sustain the reform process and take advantage of this new stage in their country’s history. They are:

1. Redefining and professionalizing the military’s political and economic role. Until the military can be removed from its economic domination of the country, both political reconciliation with minority nationalities and economic development are likely to remain elusive. If the country’s reforms cannot deliver economic development to relieve the country’s dire poverty, instability will be a constant threat.

2. Firmly establishing the rule of law and strengthening the judicial branch.The judicial branch remains a major weakness in the new government structure. This is partly a structural problem, and partly the result of decades of judicial abuse by successive military governments. These disconnects add to the problem of developing courts that are perceived by the people as capable of delivering justice fairly and establishing the rule of law.

3. Protecting individual rights. Although the reform process has opened the door to new freedoms over the past two years, they have not been enshrined in law. There are no legal protections for individual rights, despite the language in Myanmar’s 2008 constitution. In fact, all of the rules and regulations adopted since 1962 have focused strictly on security, and they remain on the books, available for security forces to use at their will.

4. Developing effective formulas for ethnic equality. Political transition itself is not enough to achieve ethnic equality; some hard, practical decisions about power sharing – both political and economic, and eventually necessitating constitutional amendment – will be required. Development of a serious debate over how to define federalism in Myanmar, and efforts to strengthen local government and decentralize administrative authority at the federal level, are important steps – but there is still a long way to go.

5. Instilling social and religious tolerance. Communal violence occurring between Buddhist and Muslim populations is providing fertile ground for small bands of troublemakers to turn local disputes into major conflicts. Civilian police must be properly organized and trained to prevent and respond effectively to mob violence. At the same time, civil society, religious, and government leaders must address intolerance and prejudice urgently and with sustained education and counseling.

6. Rooting out corruption. Corruption is endemic to Myanmar’s government and economy and presents one of the most serious challenges to the reform process, democratization, and economic liberalization. Thein Sein will have to play the balancing role between competing factions and interests in the effort to curb corruption. If the level of corruption that exists today is not significantly reduced by 2015, Myanmar’s reforms will likely lead to the kind of “half-baked” democracy we have seen in many other areas of the world.

7. Addressing the “missing middle,” a capacity void across the spectrum of the government and the economy. Myanmar’s leadership is pressing for rapid and dramatic reforms on a sclerotic system, while civil society is beginning to clamor for responses on the ground. The missing middle, where the reforms should be translated from policy into practice, are not empowered and lack the capacity to engage in the work needed to address these issues and implement solutions.

8. Delivering the benefits of reforms to the broader population.Macroeconomic stabilization and new investment laws are major steps toward improving the business environment for foreign investors. While continuing these efforts, the government also must encourage and direct this investment toward job creation and agriculture that empowers ordinary farmers, not the crony class, as the current military and crony control of the economy is a serious impediment to broad-based economic development.

9. Addressing land and property rights. Despite the passage of a new land law by the parliament, people in Myanmar are still being unfairly displaced by large business and agricultural projects without adequate compensation or means of providing a livelihood. The lack of access to a fair justice system leaves people with no means of redress for displacement. Additionally, new models must be found for ensuring that local residents gain a fair share in large development projects and that they have stable land rights that cannot be arbitrarily removed.

10. Developing mechanisms for negotiating trade-offs between economic development on the one hand, and social development and environmental protection on the other. As investment in Myanmar grows, it will be essential to work with local communities affected by development projects to address their needs and avoid having popular protests seriously impede the country’s economic development and construction of essential national infrastructure. In ethnic minority areas, it will be necessary to ensure that proceeds from large resource extraction projects are shared fairly with the local area.

Transitions are never smooth, and it is likely that the situation on the ground in Myanmar will get messier before it gets better, especially as we begin to see winners and losers in the process. Economic development will be uneven, investment will not be broad based, disputes over land rights will not be easily resolved, people will be displaced, and ethnic and sectarian conflicts will continue until acceptable solutions for all involved can be reached. Given what is at stake, the United States should do all that it can to be a reliable partner to Myanmar as the country works to ensure that current positive trends continue to 2015 and beyond.

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Topics: Asia • Myanmar

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Links

ORGANIZATION SITES

Australia Campaign for Burma
Campaign for Burma
Austrian Burma Center
Actions Birmanie
Canadian Friends of Burma
Burma Center Prague
People in Need
Danish Burma Committee
Campaign for Democracy in Burma (Finland)
Info Birmanie
Burma Aktion
Burma Initiative Germany
Burma Bureau Germany
Democracy for Burma
Burma Action Ireland
Birmania Campaign
Birmania Campaign
Burma Info
Burma Centrum Netherlands
New Zealand Council of Trade Unions
Norwegian Burma Committee
Initiatives for International Dialogue
Polish Burma Solidarity
Associação de Defesa dos Direitos Humanos
FBC-SA
Birmania por la Paz
Swedish Burma Committee
Association Suisse-Birmanie
Strategy and Build
All Burma Federation of Student Unions (Foreign Affairs Committee)
Burma Partnership
Alternative ASEAN Network on Burma
Burmese community organisation
United States Campaign for Burma
National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)
National Council of the Union of Burma
Altsean
Amnesty International
Amnesty International Crimes against Humanity in Eastern Burma report
Article 19
Assistance Association for Political Prisoners - Burma
EarthRights International
Free Burma’s Political Prisoners Now
Human Rights Treaties ratified by Burma
Human Rights Watch - Burma page
International Labour Organisation: Report on Forced Labour in Burma
Landmine Monitor Report: Burma 2008
Reporters without Borders
Arakan Rohingya National Organization (ARNO)
Christian Solidarity Worldwide

REPORTS

UNSC Report No. 1- 4 Oct 2007
Update Report 19 September 2007_Myanmar (UNSC Report)
Update Report 22 Nov 2006_Myanmar
UN Report- Myanmar Opium Survey - Oct 2004
UNSC Report No. 1 - 10 September 2008
UNSC Report No. 4- 14 May 2008
Security Council-Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in Myanmar
Situation of Human Rights in Myanmar
Thayer The Myammar/Burma Issue: After Sanctions
■ SUPPLY AND COMMAND
■ Gas & Oil Connections - Myanmar lost to China- India's encirclement complete
AI Report June 2008
AI Report November 2007 AI Report December 2007
AI Report June 2005
AI Report on Myanmar briefing after Nargis
EIU Country Report :March 2009
EIU Annual Report : 2007
EU Conclusion on Myanmar - Oct 2007
Amnesty International- Sep 2007
■ A History of the Burma Socialist Party by Kyaw Zaw Win

NUCLEAR

■ Recognition of Burma's Proliferation
■ Plagiarism in the Burma Nuclear SCOOP
■ Nuclear Proliferation and Burma the Hidden Connection
■ Burma's Secret Agreement With North Korea
■ BURMA-A-Threat-to-International-Security-and-Peace
■ Additional-Burmese-Missile-Sites-Identified
■ WMD Nexus Between North Korea and Burma
■ Where's the State Dept Nuclear Report on Burma
■ BURMA DIGEST Interview on Burma Nuclear
■ Analysis of Burma's Nuclear Program 1
■ Analysis of Burma's Nuclear Program 2
■ Russia Burma Nuclear Intelligence Report-1
■ Russia Burma Nuclear Intelligence Report-2
■ Arm-Including Nuke Dealing With N-Korea
■ Burma's China Connection and the India Ocean Region By Andrew Selth
■ NEITHER WAR NOR PEACE The Future of cease-fire Agreements in Burma
■ A Historical Overview of Political Transition in Myanmar Since 1988
■ Sino-Myanmar Economic Relations Since 1988
■ The Road to Naypyidaw- Making Sense of the Myanmar Government's Decision to Move its Capital
■ Southern Thai Politics - A Preliminary Overview

UN WORLD BODIES

Vale Earth Fair
Conservative Party Human Rights Commission
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
US State Department report on Burma
US State Department report on human rights in Burma
Witness CIA World Factbook - Burma
News Statesman special issue on Burma (Jun 08)
Global Health Facts
HIV Information for Myanmar (HIM)
Mae Tao Clinic (Dr Cynthia’s clinic)
Three Diseases Fund

ART

Art-Exiled Burmese Hip Hop
Identity and Design

Library

Online Burma Library

Journalism

Development Gateway
Human Security Gateway
Inside Burma - Land of Fear
Inside Burma - Land of Fear

Aung San Suu Kyi Pages

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi pages
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi pages
Free Aung San Suu Kyi

PHOTOGRAPHY

■ Images of Suspected Uranium Mine and Refinery in Burma
Exile Images: Photography
Grace under Pressure
Kalama Sutta
Karen guerillas

MOVIES

Shwe Dream
Burma VJ
Inside Burma - Land of Fear
Inside Burma - Land of Fear
Moving to Mars
Kalama Sutta
The Hub, by Witness.

MONKS

English
Burmese

BDC SITES

Bdcburma
Bdcburma Burmese
Music
Italian
Swedish
Youtube
French
German
Bdc wordpress
Russia
Norwegian
Spanish
Hindi/ India
Portuguese
Italian
Dutch
Swedish
Japanese
News and Entertainment Portal
Flickr
Radio

BLOGS SITES

Nguyinpyin
Rebound88
Redo8888
Dr Lunswe
Lanka-msma
Damaahdama
Myo Chit myanmar
Maynyane
Flying Peacock
Maykha
Aeinstein
Moethaukkye
Binamo
Absdf8888
Blc Burma
DPNS
Ko Moe Thee
drlunswe
khinmamamyo
ko-htike
niknayman
soneseayar
maungdine
mmedwatch
maynyane
nineninesanay
linletkyalsin
shwebothar
peacefulwalkingtogether
publicenemies
weunite-weblog
freedomuprising
pu-htu-zin
internationalcampaignforfreedom Blog Generation Wave

ETNIC SITES

Chin Youth
Feraya,s new website-taigress
Free Burma Rangers
Hurform- HRF of Monland
Karen Human Rights Group
KNL Japan
KNU
Mae Sod Border action
Phan Foundation
Chin Human Rights Organization
Drum Publications
Human Rights Foundation of Monland (HURFOM)
Karen National Union (KNU)
Karen Women’s Organisation (KWO)
Karenni Homeland
Karenni Students Union (KSU)
Kawthoolei
Kuki Forum (KIF)
Rohingyas, the Forgotten People Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN)
The Chin Forum
The Rohingya Minority

WOMEN

Burmese Women’s Union
Kachin Women’s Association Thailand
Karen Women’s Organisation (KWO)
Karenni National Women’s Organization
Shan Women’s Action Network (SWAN)
WEAVE - Women’s Education for Advancement and Empowerment
Women’s League of Burma
Women’s League of Chinland

NGOS

Burma Diaspora
Help without Frontiers
http://www.helfenohnegrenzen.de/
Latest IDP figure for Burma - Internal Displacement Monitoring Group
WEAVE - Women’s Education for Advancement and Empowerment
All Burma Federation of Student Unions (Foreign Affairs Committee)
All Burma Students’ Democratic Front
Burma Education Partnership (BEP)
Human Rights Education Institute of Burma
Prospect Burma
Federation of Trade Unions - Burma
Global Unions: Companies linked to Burma
Burma Border Projects (BBP)
Burma Children Medical Fund (BCMF)
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
Burma Diaspora

SPDC SITES

New Light of Myanmar
The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) website

ENVIRONMENTAL

Karen Rivers Watch
Living River Siam
Project Maje
Salween watch
Association for Sustainable and Responsible Investment in Asia
Burma Economic Watch
Business and Human Rights Resource Centre
Global Unions: Companies linked to Burma
Salween watch
SEEcompanies.com
Shwe Gas Movement
AIDS, TB, Malaria and Bird Flu spread unchecked in Burma
Back Pack Health Worker Team

NLD SITES

National League for Democracy (NLD) Liberated area UK Branch
NLD Japan
The National League For Democracy

Media SITES

BBC Burmese
Burmadaily
Burmanet
Democratic Voice of Burma
mizzima news
NEW ERA JOURNAL-KHITPYAING
Special Burma News
Shan Herald Agency
Kwekalu Karen News
Kuki Forum
Karen Information Center(KIC)
Burmese Events in UK
Burma Rivers Network
Mizzima Burmese
Burma Digest
Hit Tai
Khitpyaing
Burma Today
Burma daily
Burmalibrary
Yoma3
Kachin News
Kachin Post
Kaowao Newsgroup
Karen Human Rights Group
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